9 一月

如何利用加拿大免税储蓄帐户,获取更多回报

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Why you should use a TFSA to enjoy a quality retirement

本周,我们迈入了新的一年。新年伊始,我将注意力放在如何向我在加拿大免税储蓄帐户(TFSA)里投更多的钱。今年,我可以向此账户投6,000元,以获得更多的投资回报。

 

The New Year is upon us this week. Once more, I turn my attention to adding more monies to my Canadian Tax-Free Saving Account (TFSA). This year, I can put another $6000 into the account for more investment opportunities.

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加拿大于2009年推出了TFSA。你每年向TFSA的投资限额为5,000元。2013年,该上限增加到每年5,500元,到2018年一直没变。但2015年的年度投资上限为10,000元。2019年的供款限额为6,000元。2020年和2021年将保持该限额。从2009年到2021年,TFSA的持有者总投资限额为75,500元。

 

Canada introduced the Tax-Free Savings Accounts (TFSA) in 2009 with a contribution limit of C$5,000 per year. In 2013, that limit was increased to C$5,500 annually and remained at that level through 2018, except in 2015 when the limit was C$10,000. In 2019, the contribution limit was raised to C$6,000, where it remains for 2020 and 2021. The TFSA annual contribution limit is indexed to inflation and rounded to the nearest $500. The total contribution amount from 2009 to 2021 inclusive comes to $75500.

 

许多加拿大人都有注册退休储蓄计划(RRSP)。向RRSP账户里投资可以抵税。RRSP持有者在退休后从RRSP里取钱时,并每年以较低的税率交所得税。投入TFSA账户里的钱无需交投资增值税。但与TFSA有关的管理费和其他杂费不可抵税。另外,如果借钱向TFSA账户里投资,借钱所花的利息也不可抵税。

 

Many Canadians have a Registered Retirement Saving Plan (RRSP) where the deposits are deducted from their taxable income and so taxes are deferred for a later date when the amounts are retrieved for use after retirement and taxed at a supposedly lower rate. On the other hand, after tax monies are placed into TFSA account for investments and you won’t be taxed on any income the investment earns. Administrative or other fees in relation to a TFSA and any interest on money borrowed to contribute to a TFSA are not tax-deductible.

到今年为止,每个在加拿大居住且年满18岁的人向TFSA投资的总“空间”为75,500元。如果你从未开过TFSA账户,或者在有些年份中没有向TFSA投资,你可以补回投资空间。投资TFSA所赚取的收入不会影响你当前或未来年份的投资空间。

 

For every person who is a resident of Canada and of 18 years or older, the total contribution “room” for TFSA is $75500. If you have never started on this account or have skipped on your contribution for certain years, you can fill in the gaps at any time. The income earned by investments in your TFSA doesn’t impact your contribution room for current or future years.

 

TFSA有两个问题:1、从TFSA里所拿出来的钱只能在来年年初还回账户。2、超出TFSA的投资限额会被罚款。加拿大税务局对超额部分每月收取1%的罚款,直至超额部分从账户中取出。

 

There are two catches for the TFSA: First, any withdrawal amount can only be added back to your contribution room at the beginning of the following year. Second, any contribution made to a TFSA beyond the maximum allowable amount is considered an over-contribution. The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) will charge a penalty of 1% per month on the excess contribution until it is withdrawn.

 

TFSA有三种投资形式,包括银行存款,年金合同和信托安排。银行,保险公司,信用合作社和信托公司都可以为你开TFSA账户。你可以开多个TFSA账户,但是你向这些TFSA账户里所投钱的总额不能超过规定的投资限额。对于大多数想要开设TFSA的人,他们只需要联系金融机构,信用合作社或保险公司,并向他们提供自己的社会保险号(SIN)和出生日期就可开设TFSA账户。如果喜欢通过买卖不同类型的投资(例如股票和债券)来建立和管理自己的投资组合,你也可以建立一个自己管理的TFSA账户。

 

There are three types of TFSAs that can be offered: a deposit, an annuity contract, and an arrangement in trust. Banks, insurance companies, credit unions, and trust companies can all issue TFSAs. You can have more than one TFSA at any given time, but the total amount you contribute to all your TFSAs cannot be more than your available TFSA contribution room for that year. For most people who want to open a TFSA, they need to contact their financial institution, credit union, or insurance company and provide them with their Social Insurance Number (SIN) and date of birth so they can register a TFSA under the applicant’s name. A self-directed TFSA can be set up if the owner prefers to build and manage the investment portfolio by buying and selling different types of investments such as stocks and bonds.

 

一个人没有工资收入也可以开TFSA账户。你可以向TFSA供款和从中取款,并决定如何投资TFSA里的钱。如果你的配偶或同居伴侣没有钱向自己的TFSA供款,你可以把钱给他们放入TFSA。但这些钱所获得的回报与你无关。同时,你和配额对TFSA的投资总额不得超过规定的上限。

 

One does not need to have earned income to contribute to a TFSA. A TFSA account holder can make contributions and withdrawals with the TFSA and determine how funds are invested. If your spouse or common-law partner do not have money to contribute to their own TFSA, you can give the money to them instead. Any earnings from that amount will have nothing to do with you, but the total contributions you each make to your own TFSAs cannot be more than the TFSA contribution room for each person.

 

TFSA为加拿大人提供了投资和赚取免税收入来养老的机会。本文还没有涵盖 TFSA其他方面。例如,如果TFSA持有人去世,其账户里的资金如何处理。我将在下一篇文章里探讨这些问题。

 

TFSA offers Canadians a chance to invest and earn tax-free dollars as savings throughout their lives. There are many other aspects of TFSA that we have not yet covered. There are rules and regulations for the disposition of one’s TFSA upon death for instance. We will explore those and other concerns next time.